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The CV-240/340/440 series was used by the United States Air Force (USAF) for medical evacuation and VIP transport and was designated as C-131 Samaritan. The first model Samaritan, the C-131A, was derived from the CV-240 model, and was delivered to the USAF in 1954.
The United States Navy used the Samaritan, initially designated as the R4Y until 1962, at which point the naval aircraft were also redesignated as C-131s.
Nearly all of the C-131s left the active inventory in the late 1970s, but the U.S. Coast Guard operated the aircraft until 1983, while the Air National Guard and Navy units operated additional airframes, primarily as Operational Support Aircraft (OSA) for Air National Guard flying wings and as naval air station aircraft until 1990.